Input Fields


It seems as though most of the practical web is all about input fields. To create a form is simple, some might say; but to create it well requires a depth of knowledge about many different areas of this thing we call web design and development.

Part One: Considering Markup

The examples in this section have been truncated to focus on accessibility. Simply copying and pasting these code samples will not produce a complete result- some necessary attributes will have been left out.

Specification Considerations

  • An input field must have associated <label> element. To do this, add the for attribute to the<label> element. The value of the for attribute must be the same as the value for the <input> element's id attribute value.

  • When the input field fails to validate, an associated error message should be shown. To do this, add the aria-describedby attribute to the <input> element. The value of the aria-describedby attribute must be the same as the value for the id of the element that shows the error message (typically a <span> element).

Input Types

The type attribute value is the most important attribute for the <input> element. While it is text by default, here are some other common input types:

  • email

  • file

  • number

  • password

  • search

  • tel (telephone)

  • url

Other valid type values are checkbox and radiobutton , but covered in separate topics in this guide. There are other input types that are still valid but are no longer recommended for use, as they have been replaced with better support (i.e., input type="submit" should now be button type="submit").

Fun Alert! See for valid native HTML input types and some native client-side form validation in action- it may contain a few surprises!

Text Input with a label

<label for="input-firstName">First Name</label>
<input type="text" id="input-firstName" name="firstName" />

Input Attributes

Some attributes are required to make the <input> element work properly. The name and value attributes both contain data that is submitted to the server when the form submits. It can also be useful in some cases to pre-fill the value attribute.

There are also useful attributes available for use with the <input> element that developers should be aware of, as this prevents unnecessary JavaScript. Some of these attributes provide useful client-side form validation.

Warning: client-side validation should never be considered an appropriate substitution for server-side validation. Client-side validation can quickly and easily provide user feedback. Server-side validation is more intrusive and dependent on factors that can affect performance, and as such it is recommended to use both to obtain balance. Server-side validation should always be used to protect the application against those with malicious intent.

required The presence of the required attribute will indicate that the input must be filled out by the user. It should be noted that only the attribute itself is necessary. To indicate that it is not necessary, remove the attribute completely. Example:

<label for="firstName-input">First Name</label>
<input type="text" id="firstName-input" name="firstName" required />

disabled The presence of the disabled attribute will prevent the user from interacting with this element, and the value of this field will not be submitted to the server with the rest of the form data. This is useful in cases where it has been determined that the specific end user does not meet the criteria to fill out this specific form field. Disabled elements are also not required to pass color contrast standards as related to WCAG success criteria. Finally, it should be noted that only the presence of the attribute is required.

<label for="firstName-input">First Name</label>
<input type="text" id="firstName-input" name="firstName" disabled />
An input field that has been disabled

It should be noted that browsers will apply default styles to input fields marked as disabled; however this can be overridden with custom CSS if desired.

readonly The presence of the readonly attribute will allow the user to view the current value, but will not allow the user to change it. This is different from disabled in that the value for the input field marked with readonly will be sent to the server when the form is submitted. Again, it should be noted that only the presence of the attribute is required. Example:

<label for="firstName-input">First Name</label>
<input type="text" id="firstName-input" name="firstName" value="Zoey" readonly />
An input field with a default value, marked as readonly

It should be noted that browsers will apply default styles to input fields marked as readonly; however this can be overridden with custom CSS if desired.

autocomplete Input fields are set to autocomplete="true" by default. This will allow some browsers (that provide the option) to automatically fill in information saved by the user to the browser itself. In instances where this is not desired behavior, setting autocomplete="false" will turn this option off.

It is an elevated experience for users with assistive technology to include this attribute in form fields, especially where the type of questions being asked in a form are atypical of the type of autocomplete data (such as name and address) that a user's browser may have stored. Example:

<label for="camping-preference">Where is your favorite place to camp?</label>
<input id="camping-preference" type="text" name="campingPreference" autocomplete="false" />

For a complete list of valid values for the autocomplete attribute, visit

pattern Setting the pattern attribute value will provide client-side form validation for the user. The pattern attribute expects a Regular Expression as its value. Example:

<label for="weather-preference">Do you prefer sunny weather or cloudy weather?</label>
<input type="text" pattern="[Ss]unny|[Cc]loudy" id="weather-preference" />

Using the :invalid and :valid pseudo selectors in CSS can indicate that the element is invalid:

A dashed red border indicates that the value in the input field is not valid.

Note: the email and url input types do not require a pattern attribute, because they already provide their own form of pattern validation. Additionally, pattern is ignored if the input type is number AND the browser supports the type. For browsers that do not support the number type, the pattern attribute can be used to provide a graceful fallback.

min-length and max-length When it is useful to control the number of characters put into the field, min-length and max-length attributes can be used. Some traditional databases have a maximum character length that they can accept, so it is prudent to be aware of the limitations of where the form data is heading.

It is also appropriate to be aware that non-traditional data may exist, and plan for those use cases. For more reading on this subject, search for "names that break websites", or read People's Names that Break Websites.

placeholder Sometimes it is useful to show the user what kind of formatting is expected. In these cases, the placeholder attribute can be useful. Example:

<label for="firstName-input">First Name</label>
<input id="firstName-input" type="text" name="firstName" placeholder="Zoey McEmber" />
An input field with placeholder content

Warning! It is not acceptable to use a placeholder instead of an associated <label> element. Machine-readable code requires a <label> element to be associated with each input field. See the styling sub-section for ideas on styling.

There are some other attributes that exist but are not commonly used today, such as size and width as these things are more appropriately managed with CSS.

Input with associated error message

If additional guidance is desired, an error message that is associated with the input field can be added. This is what the simplified markup for an input with an associated error message could look like:

<label for="input-email">Email</label>
<input type="email" id="input-firstName" aria-describedby="email__error-message"
aria-invalid="true" />
<span id="email__error-message" role="alert">
Please enter a valid email address.

Note the aria-describedby attribute on the input field, whose value matches the id of the element that contains the error message.

Part Two: Creating the Ember Component(s)

First, the appropriate requirements should be gathered.

Next, the component should be generated:

ember generate component input-text -gc

This will create three files and put them in the correct location:

  • app/components/input-text.hbs

  • app/components/input-text.js

  • tests/integration/components/input-text-test.js

In app/components/input-text.hbs, the component markup can be set up and the places where dynamic functionality is needed can be indicated.

So this markup:

<div class="form-group">
<label for="input-id">Label Text</label>

Becomes this component template:

<div class="form-group">
<label for={{this.inputId}}>{{@inputLabelText}}</label>

In app/components/input-text.js, the input id will need to be generated so the label element can access it. While there are a few different ways to accomplish this, the existing guidFor function will serve nicely:

import Component from '@glimmer/component';
import { guidFor } from '@ember/object/internals';
export default class InputTextComponent extends Component {
inputId = 'textInput-' + guidFor(this);

Then, the component can be used in the view or page template:

<InputText @inputLabelText="First Name" @inputName="firstName" />

Considering Attributes

Any form input planning should include considerations for which attributes should be supported. At the bare minimum, required, disabled, and readonly should be considered.

Updated app/components/input-text.hbs to include these attributes:

<div class="form-group">
<label for={{this.inputId}}>{{@inputLabelText}}</label>

Then they can be added or removed from the view/page template when the component is used. For example, if the disabled state was desired for an input field:

<InputText @inputLabelText="First Name" @inputName="firstName" @isDisabled="true" />

Note that if the attribute needs a false state, it cannot merely change to @isDisabled="false" (that will still rendered the disabled attribute) - it must be removed completely:

<InputText @inputLabelText="First Name" @inputName="firstName" />

Ember's Input Helper

For smaller applications, it may be more desirable to use Ember's input helper instead of creating a component. In these cases, can be written directly to the view/page template:

<div class="form-group">
<label for="email-address">Email</label>
<Input type="email" id="email-address" class="form-control" />

The label element (and the for attribute) has to be manually applied, and the id attribute added to the Input helper component. To read more about Ember's Input helper, visit the official Ember.js guides:


In these Ember Component examples, the components have been closely scoped for a specific type of text input and closely related use cases. Further customization could be desired, so it is recommended to consider the balance of use cases. By providing separate components for different input types, it can lower the developer's cognitive burden as there will be fewer options to remember within one specific component.

On the other hand, some teams may find it more useful to have a "kitchen sink" style of input component, that accepts many different types. It is strongly recommended to have a team discussion in order to determine which is the right approach for the specific project.

Part Three: Abstractions for Reuse

When creating something like a UI addon that will be used in several apps in your organization (or made available to the public), some level of abstraction can be useful to ensure that components are reusable and resilient.

What that abstraction looks like can vary from project to project; no abstraction will be perfect. One of the ways that Ember helps to support flexible abstractions is with the use of ...attributes. Read more about the use of ...attributes on the official guides:


Feedback is welcome! Visit the GitHub repository for this project to raise an issue.